"Hello, Rainy." - In 1892, ignorant of the wireless inventions of the past 60 years, Nathan creates an electromagnetic induction wireless telephone and demonstrates it to his friend Rainey Wells. A few years later, Nathan develops a superior wireless telephone that uses natural conduction through the earth and water.
Bob Lochte has done an enormous amount of work uncovering papers, notes and pictures, and quotes on Nathan Stubblefield. There is one puzzling thing to me about the Stubblefield device. It seems to me that Tesla is standing in one of the pictures. I have checked the references and, yes, Tesla is in the picture. Now that I understand this, it brings me to the conclusion that the waves Stubblefield used were longitudinal in nature.
Even without Stubblefield, Marconi still wouldn't be the true inventor of radio - Nikola Tesla invented it before Marconi. Marconi, in fact, used Tesla's own patents as research materials. Tesla, in turn, was among the curious onlookers in attendance at Stubblefield's 1902 wireless demonstration in Philadelphia.
Stubblefield also developed a battery to power this system and a motor, that we will get into later. Now around 1878 Amos Dolbear files a patent on what he called induction wireless telephone, demonstrated publicly in the us, Canada, and Europe in 1882 and 1883, patented in U.S.1886. What is amazing to me is that the patent uses an elevated capacitance. So this is not the same as a Hertizan wave transmitter. It is very clear that the capacitance acts as the antenna and the return is using the earth as ground. The induction coil is used as a high self-inductance only, creating a very high potential or stress in the aether.
"Now," Tesla writes later on about the transmitter that he was developing, "I attacked vigorously the development of my magnifying transmitter, now however, not so much with the original intention of producing one of great power, as with the object of learning how to construct the best one. This is essentially, a circuit of high self-induction and small resistance ( key words coming up) which in its arrangement, mode of excitation and section and action, may be said to be the diametrical opposite of a transmitting circuit typical of telegraphy by Hertzian or electromagnetic radiations."
What Stubblefield had discovered and what he did with his system.
Stubblefield was experimenting with ground radio since 1882, but did not patent his developments until much later. Credible witnesses saw his ground radio experiments in action during this time frame, establishing the historical priority of Stubblefield. While Marconi could barely send telegraphic "dots and dash" signals with great difficulty through a static-filled medium, Nathan Stubblefield had already transmitted the human voice with loud, velvet clarity. Others would adopt and implement the Collins system (Fessenden, DeForest, Bethenod, Braun), but none could duplicate the Stubblefield System.
Nikola Tesla performed double ground experiments with impulses as early as 1892, reporting these in lectures and patenting some embodiments in 1901. Not one of these later systems ever achieved the same results of clarity, tone, and volume of Stubblefield ground telephony. Tesla apparently never discovered the true powerpoints which powered Stubblefield's device. Priority in all these arts belongs to Nathan Stubblefield alone. In addition, his was the only system in which natural energies were obtained, magnified, and entirely employed as the empowering source. All other inventors used "artificial" sources (batteries, alternators, dynamos).
Following all these ground radio demonstrations, Stubblefield researched "Magnetic Waves" and developed several systems which did not use ground terminals for exchanging signals. Long distance wireless telephone communications were his aim. Many imagined this to be radio as we know it, but several features of Stubblefield aerial are distinctive and different.
First his transmitters and receivers were telephonic, not telegraphic. In his preliminary experiments, the earth battery was used to energize an apparatus to which was connected a long horizontal aerial line. Marconi later adopted this "bent L" symmetry in conjunction with a grounded copper conduction screen. There are no photographs of these arrays, but I have hand-written manuscript copies of certain diary notes in which a progressively greater telephonic distance is reported. Nathan Stubblefield made steady progress in this form of telephonic transmission , but used neither alternators nor spark discharge.
Mr. Stubblefield reasoned that, since electrical waves traverse the whole earth, it might be possible to send signals to distant places. These ground-permeating natural electrical waves might serve as carriers for the human voice. The ground would act as both power generator and signal conductor. Like a gale carrying messages downwind, these electrical waves could bring wireless communications instantly to any part of the world.
These transmissions were made through the ground itself and used the Stubblefield cell for power. In several photographs we see special loud speaking telephones outfitted with (1 foot) horns, designed to act as annunciators. Calls from these annunciators brought his son Bernard to the telephone transmitter. The system was never switched off. Power was limitless and did not diminish with time of the day or length of use.
Natural observations in systems led to unexpected, theory-busting discoveries. Such an effect demonstrates that an articulate quasi-intelligent energy permeates the natural environment.... an energy of which electricity is a minor part.
Two more mysteries have lingered from this latter period of invention in the Stubblefield biography. The nature of each reveals the extent to which he had developed and advanced his new earth power technology. Nathan continued to pursue his experiments, but little was seen of him for long time periods. Alone and tired, Nathan stopped working his farm completely.
Later, Investigators entered his land area and found heavy wires leading from the roots of trees. To these wires were attached small arc lamps, hung in the trees. These were extinguished. They imagined the arc lamps to be the explanation of his hillside sunlight. Their hasty analysis proved problematic from stories which witnesses report. The warm and diffused sunlight which came from the ground itself around his house was not localized in specific lamps. The light came from the ground, not from the trees as before... a "whole hillside that would blossom with light"... "lit up like daytime". These observations indicate that Stubblefield had managed indeed the direct conversion of earth energy to light and warmth. This would acceptable, were Mr. Stubblefield simply working on a newer form of drawing electricity from the ground to light small arc-lamps; a feat which he had accomplished earlier. But these kind persons could never find any evidence of arc-lighting or any other form of known lighting anywhere near the area. In their own words "the light seemed to come out from the ground itself".
In addition to ground sunlight effects, many heard very loud and unfamiliar noises coming from the whole area surrounding his cabin. What could this be? Had he managed to directly transduce the natural impulses of the ground energy into audio?
His last claim two weeks before his death was made to a kind neighbor: "The past is nothing. I have perfected now the greatest invention the world has ever known..... I have taken light from the air and earth.... as I did sound."
Neighbors had not seen Nathan for several days. As they were worried about his health, they attempted to call on him. The lock was secured from the inside. It was a lonely, cold and rainy March day when old friends and neighbors broke the lock on Nathan's cabin and entered. He had passed away in his bed, the probable victim of malnutrition and fatigue. They all noticed that the interior of the cabin was "toasty warm", as if heated by a strong fire. Moved to locate the source of this heat, town officials found " two highly polished metal mirrors which faced each other, radiating a very great heat in rippling waves" This is a great discovery. It fulfills what Nathan reported in his last testimony.
Nathan Stubblefield used earth magnetic currents. this is not current as we know it. Electricity is a wasted product of this magnetic current.