Wednesday, March 23, 2011

PEMM Motor Harnesses Anti-matter and Electron-Avalanche

Gary Magrattan's PEMM Electric motor is said to harness the phenomenon of electron avalanche across a spark gap to boost current, voltage, and power. A unique method of harnessing back EMF adds to it's novelty as it nears production.


There is more to a spark than a simple transfer of electrical energy. When you see electricity jump from one electrode to another or observe a bolt of lighting flash in the sky, mechanisms are taking place that liberate large amounts of energy. This energy can be collected and harnessed to perform work. California, US inventor, Gary Magrattan's PEMM or "Pulsed DC Electromagnetic Motor", building on the work of John Bedini, is designed to produce and capture this energy to increase voltage, current, and total power. It also utilizes a unique pulsing method that enables optimal timing and allows the collapsing magnetic field of the electromagnets to produce an extra repulsive force. The result is a high torque motor that can potentially extend the range of electric vehicles. 


The PEMM Setup

The basic operation of the PEMM motor is straightforward. An ordinary battery (low voltage) powers an inverter that converts the DC (direct current) to AC (alternating current). Next, the output of the inverter is sent to a transformer that converts the still fairly low voltage AC to a higher voltage. This high voltage alternating current is converted back into direct current electricity by the means of a full bridge rectifier. The high voltage DC is then stored in one or more capacitors.

The capacitor is pulsed by the commutator. This occurs when the rotor electromagnet is approximately two degrees or one fourth inch past the stator. At this position the electrodes align with a high voltage potential. This allows a spark to jump the gap from the cathode (negative pole) to the anode (positive pole) through atmosphere. It is during this moment that a couple of very unique phenomena take place that allow for the circuit to increase in current and voltage -- hence an increase in total power. This increase in total power (beyond what was provided by the battery) is one feature that makes this motor unique. 

(More on these phenomena further down in this article!)

The motor connected to this circuit is composed of multiple stator and rotor electromagnets. No permanent magnets are used. Currently, the electromagnets use silicon steel laminations as core material. It is hoped in the future that supermalloy, permalloy, or mumetal will be used for the cores. The increased permeability of these materials could allow for even more torque to be produced in this already high torque motor. 

Immediately after the circuit is pulsed and the spark jumps the gap between electrodes, the rotor and stator electromagnets fire. The rotor electromagnets are wired to lead the stator magnets, but this is largely insignificant because the electricity is flowing so quickly. A repulsive force is created between the stator and rotor electromagnets that produces a very strong torque. An additional torque produced due to the collapse of the same field produces additional torque. This cycle is repeated several times a second. 


Electron Avalanche Boosts Current

During the process that allows the spark to cross the gap between electrodes (through open air),- special phenomena occur. One of these is called "Electron Avalanche." This occurs when the air between the electrodes breaks down into a conducting plasma. The high voltage electric flux begins to break loose electrons from the atoms of air molecules. A cascade then begins in which a few liberated electrons ionize additional air molecules via the emission of ultraviolet radiation. This photo-electric effect induces the release of even more electrons. The chain reaction continues and large quantities of free electrons are generated. A small number of these electrons are bound to the positive ions created, but most are drawn to the positive anode. Since current is defined as a flow of electrons the result is an increased current in the circuit. 

The phenomenon of "Electron Avalanche" is not conjecture, but hard science. It is detailed well in a publication titled "The Mechanism Of The Electric Spark", Stanford University Press, Copyright 1941 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, printed and bound in the United States of America by Stanford University Press. This publication covers the research of Leonard B. Loeb, Professor of Physics, University of California at Berkeley; and John M. Meek, Commonwealth Fund Fellow, University of California at Berkeley, Research Engineer with Metropolitan Vicars Company, Manchester England. Lengthy excerpts from this fascinating document can be found in the three engineering reports being offered at the PEMM website.

In an electric motor, an increase in current is very beneficial, because a magnetic field is generated by electric current. Hence, with the PEMM motor, an increase in current results in a stronger magnetic field produced by the electromagnets. This increase in magnetic field strength results in more repulsion between stator and rotor electromagnets which means more torque produced by the motor. The torque produced by the PEMM due to this increase in current is claimed to be "explosive" in that it is very, very strong. 

However, this is not the only phenomenon utilized by the PEMM motor. 



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