David Klingelhoefer has designed and tested a variation of Thane Heins' Bi-Toroid Transformer that outputs more power than is consumed. He has been able to get the primary circuit consumption down to 60 watts, while outputting 480 watts -- 8x overunity.
Conventional transformers do not produce a gain of energy. The more power you try to extract from a transformer the more power the system consumes. This is due to a fundamental principle called, "Back EMF."
The Canadian inventor Thane Heins has developed a transformer in which the back EMF takes another route (does not return to the primary) and hence decouples the input from the output; and in the process is able to get more energy out than is put in. David Klingelhoefer has simplified Thane Heins' setup and potentially improved upon it.
Conventional Transformer Theory
To understand Thane Heins' transformer and the fundamental modifications David has made to it, having a grasp of basic transformer theory is helpful. Please do not be alarmed! It is not as complex as you may think. Here is a great site that provides a graphically illustrated explanation of basic transformer theory.
The above link utilizes a solenoid as the transformer core material. However, the same concepts apply to toroidal transformers. By studying the presentation at the above link, you will learn how the current flowing in the secondary produces a magnetic field (back EMF) that works against the magnetic field that created it. When the magnetic field that induced the current in the secondary is weakened, more current starts to flow in the primary. This effect "balances the books" in a conventional transformer, preventing you from getting more power out than you put in.
Thane Heins Bi-Toroid Transformer
A good graphical representation and explanation of Thane Heins' Bi-Toroid Transformer can be found atrexresearch. His transformer is roughly the shape of a figure eight, or two toroids side by side sharing a common center. Instead of only having one primary and one secondary (as in a conventional transformer), he has one primary and two secondaries. The primary is on one end of the figure eight, the first secondary is in the middle, and the final secondary is at the other end of the figure eight. In addition, the half of the figure eight in which the primary is wound is composed of a low permeability material (not as easy for a magnetic field to travel through). The other half is composed of a high permeability material (easier for a magnetic field to travel through).
When the primary is pulsed in his system, a magnetic field is induced in the first half of the toroid core. This changing magnetic field produces a current flow in the first secondary coil (the one wound around the middle segment of the figure eight). Normally, if there was not an additional half of this transformer, that current flow would create a magnetic field that would work against the field that created it. This would unrestrict the primary and allow input power consumption to grow. However, in this system, with an additional half (the other half of the figure eight that is of a higher permeability than the first half), the magnetic field produced by the current flow in the first secondary does not fight against the field that created it. Instead, it avoids the path of greater resistance (the lower permeability material of the first half of the figure eight) and follows the path of least resistance (the higher permeability material of the second half of the figure eight). It then induces a current in the final secondary on the opposite side of the primary. Apparently, the power produced from this coil can be harnessed to perform work.
By not opposing the field that created it, the magnetic field produced by the first secondary prevents the transformer from consuming any "real" power. Because the system is utilizing alternating current all the energy that is stored in the transformer core material each cycle is returned back to the source. This is called, "reactive power" and is continually returned to the source. The output of the system can be considered "free."
Thane Heins has performed demonstrations on YouTube in which his system consumes zero or almost no "real" power (all the "reactive power" is returned to the source) and outputs over ten watts.
The Gabriel Device
David Klingelhoefer is a mostly self-taught technology enthusiast and inventor who spends a great deal of time scouring the internet for ideas. He came across Thane Heins Bi-Toroid technology and was very impressed by it. Not long afterwards, he had an idea to simplify and potentially improve upon Thane Heins Bi-Toroid transformer. Much of his spare time over the past few years has been spent working on this idea. David calls his variation, "The Gabriel Device" named after the angel that stands at the left hand of God.
His idea is simple, but fundamentally changes the design of Thane Heins system. He takes a large M-146 M-146 nanoperm toroid produced by Magnetec and winds approximately 300 feet of 16 awg insulated copper wire around it as tight as can be wound by hand. For those of you that are not familiar with various magnetic materials, nanoperm has a very high permeability. This is the secondary of his system.
The next step is to place a large, cold rolled steel shell around the secondary. One piece loosely fits on top of the nanoperm toroid and other piece fits loosely on the bottom. The two halves form a shell or primary toroid that encloses the secondary. The gap around the circumference is welded shut or sealed with epoxy. It is then wound with 400 feet of 16 awg copper "boat wire" (he just happened to have that kind of wire available). This is the primary of his system. Both the primary and secondary coils are wound in the same direction.
The basic theory here is that when the primary is pulsed, it will produce a magnetic field that will then induce a magnetic field in the nano-perm core of the secondary. This will cause a current to flow in the secondary coil. But due to the fact the nanoperm material is of a much higher permeability (or lower reluctance) than the cold rolled steel, the magnetic field will stay in the nanoperm and not work against the field from the primary that created it.
An advantage of having the secondary inside of the primary is the magnetic field of a toroid is concentrated inside of itself. This means the secondary is obtaining maximum exposure to the magnetic field produced by the primary. If the secondary does not fight against the primary field, this could result in a lot of output with little or no "real power" consumed by the primary.
The Primary and Secondary Circuits
Like many individuals in the free energy arena, David does not have a great deal of funds to work with. Many of his parts and components come from discarded electronic equipment from Goodwill, second hand stores, or friends. He does not have the funds to purchase fancy equipment like variable frequency AC power supplies and oscilloscopes. Instead, for the most part, he has to make do with the equipment and tools he has on hand.
His input circuit is composed of a Kill-A-Watt like power meter plugged into mains power. A wire runs from the hot terminal (black) of a wall outlet to the primary core. The same wire then connects to the hot prong of a surge protector's power plug. Another wire is run from the neutral prong of the surge protector to the neutral terminal of the wall outlet. He then plugs a toaster into the surge protector and turns it on. Without a load plugged in, the surge protector will not allow current to flow in the circuit. The main purpose of the toaster is to limit the current flowing through the input circuit. The wire diameter he is using (16 awg) would draw too much current without the toaster, and could start a fire.
His output circuit is even simpler. He takes the ends (leads) of the secondary coil and place them on the prongs of another Kill-A-Watt like power meter. Then he plugs a surge protector into the power meter. He can then plug loads into the surge protector, and the power meter will display the power being consumed, which is the output of his system. A fluke multimeter is used to double check the voltages displayed by the two power meters.
With this setup he can run mains power (60 hertz 120 volt alternating current) into the primary.
Without a load on the secondary, the primary circuit consumes 420 watts (3.5 amps at 120 volts) as displayed by the power meter plugged into the wall. As he adds loads (usually lights) to the secondary, something very interesting happens. The primary current starts to drop! Actually, the more load he places on the secondary, the less power the primary consumes. He has been able to get the primary circuit power consumption down to 60 watts (.5 amps at 120 volts) while outputting 480 watts (4 amps at 120 volts). His output is 800% that of the primary consumption!
The reduction of input current is real, because not only can he measure the current dropping with the power meter, but the toaster in series with the primary circuit starts emitting less heat. It starts to barely warm up at all. In addition, the output is real, because it can illuminate multiple 100 watt light bulbs. Unfortunately, if he places too much of a load on the secondary, the output voltage will drop to almost nothing (around two volts) and the input current will rise back to 3.5 amps.
An Upcoming Optimization
One shortcoming of the current setup is that the outer shell that wraps around the primary is not tight fitting. It is very loose. Do the fact that a magnetic field diminishes quickly over distance most of the magnetic field produced by the primary is probably not reaching the secondary (the nanoperm toroid). David has ordered a new cold rolled steel primary shell that will be form fitting with the secondary nanoperm core. This new primary core should arrive in a week or so. He plans to test the new core within days of it arriving.
An additional optimization is to add more windings to the primary and secondary coils. He plans to increase the length of wire on the secondary to 900 feet and increase the length of wire on the primary as well. With the increased wire (more ampere turns) it is possible he may be able to increase the output of the secondary beyond what he has been able to obtain so far without it "crashing", the voltage falling to near zero, and the primary input returning to normal.
He hopes to be able to take the optimized system to a university lab and use their equipment to perform additional tests. For example, at a University he should be able to use a variable AC frequency generator that would allow him to power his system with a safe level of current which would eliminate the need for the toaster in the primary circuit. It will be interesting to determine if without the load on the primary if any power is consumed at all. If his system works in a similar manner to Thane Heins, his system should not consume any power. I think there is even a possibility his system might be trying to push power back into the wall and that could be why the input current is reduced when a load is on the secondary.
Cost of Components
The nanoperm toroid is the most expensive component of his system. It costs approximately $250 dollars. The new outer steel shell costs about $25 dollars per side, and the copper wire costs a couple hundred dollars. Kill-A-Watt power meters cost about $20 dollars each. A good multimeter may cost $30 dollars. The other components can be found at very low cost at yard sales or second hand shops. All together, the price of a replication would be around $500 dollars.
David has several ideas for how this technology could be utilized. One possibility is that it could be used to power appliances directly. A small input could produce an output large enough to power an air conditioner, refrigerator, etc. Another possibility is connecting one of these devices between the power line and your home. If the output of one of these devices could be scaled up (or more than one of them utilized) you could power your home while consuming little if any real power. Finally, he imagines a setup where these devices could be built, used to power your home, but the excess could be sold back to the power company.
More to Come
More testing of this interesting and potentially very useful technology is needed. If his power consumption measurements are accurate he has built a simple over-unity device capable of producing practical output.
As soon as he receives the new outer shell for the primary he will begin additional testing. He has stated he will provide PESN with all the results. Part #2 of this story will be posted when that test data comes in.
David Klingelhoefer can be reached at email@example.com
groups.yahoo.com - official forum launched March 22, 2011